To study pulse amplitude modulation and demodulation. This complete 3volume lab manual offers handson labs for teaching basic analog and digital communication topics such as am, fm, snr concepts, sampling, tdm, and deltasigma modulation. The amplitude of the fm signal is constant at all times and is independent of the modulation signal. The ideal modulated signal should have a minimum euclidean distance of 2. To generate amplitude modulation am waveform and to measure modulation index of am wave using waveform method. In one method of radio transmission a signal at an audio frequency f s the signal frequency controls the amplitude of a carrier wave of radio frequency f c the carrier frequency, where f c is much greater than f s. User manual for pulse width modulation and demodulation. It is a variant of trellis coded modulation tcm which uses a onedimensional pulse amplitude modulation pam symbol space, as opposed to a twodimensional quadrature amplitude modulation qam symbol space. Pam 4 introduction and how to set up your pam4 signal on your scope duration. It is an analog pulse modulation scheme in which the amplitudes of a train of carrier pulses are varied according to the sample value of the message signal. Then inner products dot products are 1 1 0 can interpret inner product as projection of vector 1 v1 onto vector 2 v2in other words, inner product of v1 and v2 tells us how much of vector 1 is there in the direction of vector 2. To study sampling and reconstruction of pulse amplitude modulation system 6.
Additionally, software packages like national instruments lab view and other graphical. Amplitude modulation is defined as a process in which the amplitude of the carrier wave ct is varied linearly with the instantaneous amplitude of the message signal mt. Frequency modulation software free download frequency modulation top 4 download offers free software downloads for windows, mac, ios and android computers and mobile devices. The purpose of this lab is for you to gain familiarity with the concepts of amplitude. The output of a sampling circuit with a zeroorder hold zoh is one example of a pam signal. Sampling theorem and pulse amplitude modulation pam.
The fact that rapidly modulating the amplitude of one wave results in a waveform identical to playing two notes of different frequencies is quite remarkable and for more information on such wave interference, please see our wave interference and beat frequency demo. Indian institute of technology kanpur ee 381 electrical. To study frequency modulation and determine its modulation factor 4. For flattop sampling, a sampleandhold circuit is used in conjunction with the. Pdf a pulseamplitudemodulated differentialtimesignaling pamdts architecture for serial communication links is presented in this. A continuouswave goes on continuously without any intervals and it is the baseband message signal, which contains the information. Pulse amplitude modulation is defined as the data transmission by altering the amplitudes power levels or voltage of every pulse in a regular time sequence of electromagnetic pulses. Pulse amplitude modulation is the basic form of pulse modulation. In this modulation, the signal is sampled at regular intervals and each sample is made proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal. Pulseamplitude modulation pam, is a form of signal modulation where the message information is encoded in the amplitude of a series of signal pulses. Feb 12, 2014 pulseamplitude modulation, acronym pam, is a form of signal modulation where the message information is encoded in the amplitude of a series of signal pulses. Vestigial sideband amplitude modulation vsbam is a modulation that improves the spectral e.
The potential of pulse amplitude modulation pam fluorometry was evaluated during a weathering experiment designed to evaluate the algal resistance effectiveness of an admixture of microscopic glass bubbles in silicon paint. To study and perform amplitude modulation 2 to study and perform frequency modulation and demodulation. Compared to the 2b1q scheme used in the older hdsl and sdsl standards, tc. It is a modulation system in which the signal is sampled at regular intervals and each sample is made proportional to the amplitude of the signal at the instant of sampling. Pdf pulse amplitude modulation pam and discrete multitone dmt technology are attractive modulation techniques for shortreach. A comprehensive modulation effect,offering 3 types of modulation of audio signal a comprehensive modulation effect, offering 3 types of modulation of audio signals. The potential of pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry. Amplitude modulation demodulation software free download. Pulse amplitude modulation pam, quadrature amplitude modulation qam 12. To study sampling and reconstruction of pulse amplitude modulation. Pdf differentialtime and pulseamplitude modulation signaling.
Pulse amplitude modulation pam theory of and its applications. It is often called as am and is commonly used in transmitting a piece of information through a radio carrier wave. What is modulation 2 modulation in the modulation process, some characteristic of a highfrequency carrier signal bandpass, is changed according to the instantaneous amplitude of the information baseband signal. The am1 synthesizer is a realtime, midicontrolled, music synthesizer for the macintosh platform. To study and perform amplitude modulation and demodulation.
Amplitude modulation is mostly used in the form of electronic communication. Amplitude modulation am the process of combining the message signal with the carrier signal and the two sidebands. Frequency modulation fm the process of combining the message signal with the carrier signal that causes the message signal to vary the frequency of the carrier signal. No information is lost, but the energy is redistributed in the frequency domain. Farshad lahouti january 20, 2003 winter 2003 uw, ece 318 lecture notes 2 information source signal modulator propagation channel signal demodulator information destination analog communication system analog signals may be transmitted directly via carrier modulat ion over. Among the types of modulation techniques, the main classification is continuouswave modulation and pulse modulation. A two bit modulator pam4 will take two bits at a time and will map the signal amplitude to one of four possible levels, for example.
The demonstration centers around a number of signals displayed in both the time domain and the frequency domain using a signal generator, an oscilloscope to view the signal. The particular form of pulse amplitude modulation is referred to as natural pam, because the tops of the pulses follow the shape of the modulating signal. Yet, am continues to be used today in many communication applications. Amplitude modulation a1 53 experiment aligning the model the low frequency term at to generate a voltage defined by eqn. Amplitude modulation definition, types, solved examples. Department of electronics and communication engineering. This conforms to the expectation as the maximum and minimum peak of the modulated signal waveform varies proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal. If this minimum value is zero, the modulation depth is 100%. Bpsk, qpsk, msk frequency shift keying, fsk quadrature amplitude modulation, qam. Pulse amplitude modulation is the process by which the amplitude of the regularly spaced pulses varies according to the the amplitude of the modulating signal. Currently there is no open source, free software or alternative commercial. Why modulation is used suitable for signal transmission distanceetc. Pulse amplitude modulated signal and demodulated signals are observed.
Before we study in detail about pam lets know the concepts of modulation. That could be the amplitude, phase, or frequency, which result in amplitude modulation am, phase modulation pm, or frequency modulation fm. Thus the amplitude of the signal is proportional to the modulating signal through which information is carried. Another method, which introduces more variables into the model, is explored in the experiment entitled. What is amplitude modulation, am electronics notes. Experiment 3 amplitude modulation and envelope detection 1. Then as the audio signal amplitude is changed to 150 mvpp, the percentage modulation dropped to around 30%. Pulse amplitude modulation pam, is a form of signal modulation where the message information is encoded in the amplitude of a series of signal pulses. Each part may be of any convenient amplitude at the input to an adder.
Pam is a pulse modulation system is which the signal is sampled at regular intervals. Each channel sharing scheme a set of basis vectors. The experiment of rf modulation at the hls hefei light source is introduced. Pulse amplitude modulation pam is the simplest of all pulse modulation techniques. The standard form of an amplitude modulated am wave is defined by st a c 1 k a mt cos2f c t where k a is a constant called the amplitude sensitivity of the modulator. This form of modulation is essentially derived from two carriers that are 90 out of phase and adding information, either analogue or digital. The pulse train acts as a periodic switching signal to the modulator, which when switched on allows samples of the modulating signal to pass through to the output. Amplitude modulation and demodulation objective amplitude modulation am is one of the simplest methods for modulating a sinusoidal carrier wave.
Explain generation and demodulation of pam, ppm and pwm. In modulation, one characteristic of a signal generally a sinusoidal wave known as the carrier is changed based on the information signal that we wish to transmit modulating signal. Pulseamplitude modulation, acronym pam, is a form of signal modulation where the message information is encoded in the amplitude of a series of signal pulses. The emona datex addon board combines with the ni elvis platform, providing a foundation to assist the student in visualizing and better understanding the concepts. Amplitude modulation am is a modulation technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave. Hence, pam is continuous in amplitude but discrete in time. Ee3 lab 1 amplitude modulation and demodulation broadcast analog television tv signals have a bandwidth of approximately 6mhz and this is achieved with a quadrature modulation.
Connect frequency counter across the fm out sockets and measure free run span by. Process by which a property or a parameter of a signal is varied in proportion to a second signal. In amplitude modulation am, we utilize the amplitude of the audio signal to modulate the amplitude of carrier signal, which means that the amplitude of carrier signal will be varied with the amplitude of the audio signal. Telecommunications labs for emona datex addon board. You can publish your book online for free in a few minutes. In a baseband pam system, we are free to design the transmit and receiver. Amplitude modulation is a process by which the wave signal is transmitted by modulating the amplitude of the signal. Explore the power of amplitude modulation the magpi magazine. Sampling theorem determines the necessary conditions which allow us to change an analog signal to a discrete one.
The amplitude of the modulation signal determines the amount of the frequency change from the center frequency. The pulse train acts as a periodic switching signal to the modulator, which when switched on allows samples of. Sampling theorem and pulse amplitude modulation pam reference stremler, communication systems, chapter 3. Pulse width modulation pwm is a modulation technique, which converts an analog signal into a digital signal for transmission. As illustrated in figure 5, the amplifier is biased class c and the output rf signal amplitude is modulated by causing the collector supply voltage to vary with the modulation voltage. The continuous wave modulation techniques are further divided into amplitude modulation and angle modulation. Amplitude modulated signal can be represented by the following equation.
In singlechannel efield sensing, the carrier we transmit is m, the sensed value is a, and the noise is n vectors. In amplitude modulation, the amplitude signal strength of the carrier wave is varied in proportion to that of the message signal being transmitted. Pdf effects of amplitude modulation on vibrotactile flow. This method is capable of producing nearly 100% modulation with reasonable linearity. The am1 uses up to 6 square or sine wave oscillators per voice and amplitude modulation. Pdf experimental comparison of pulse amplitude modulation. Amplitude modulation am 9 t15 use speech or music from trunks as the message, and show that this also generates a trapezoid, and that setting the message amplitude so that the depth of modulation reaches unity on peaks a triangle is especially easy to do, using the gain control g of the adder. Connect the carrier signal at carrier ip of the modulator circuit. To provide a familiarization with the use of a multipliercircuit unit to generate an amplitudemodulated am signal, with an adjustable modulation factorm. The pulse amplitude modulated signal, will follow the amplitude of the original signal, as the signal traces out the path of the whole wave. In this paper we report the hardware implementation of the padm in bandwidth limited visible light link and compare its performance with an existing techniques.
There are many methods of generating am, and this experiment explores only one of them. Read, download and publish amplitude modulation magazines, ebooks for free at. Experiment 3 amplitude modulation and envelope detection. Experiment 10 amplitude modulation and demodulation introduction in this experiment we generate and display.
In pam, the amplitude of the message or modulating signal is mapped to a series of pulses, with two possible variant detailed below. In a new technique called pulse amplitude and delay modulation padm was proposed to enhance the bandwidth efficiency of an optical link. The following diagram shows the setup of am modulator in the teaching lab. Analog communication pulse modulation tutorialspoint. Pulse amplitude modulation pam linkedin slideshare. Demonstrate understanding of various amplitude modulation and demodulation techniques. The possible number of amplitudes can be infinite, but mostly it is some power of two. Cahn, combined digital phase and amplitude modulation communication systems, ire transactions on communications systems, vol.
Pulse width modulation and in position ppm, pulse position. Pwm converts an audio signal into a sequence of pulses having constant amplitude, but the width is proportional to amplitude of. Analog communication lab viva questions and answers pdf analog communication lab viva questions with answers pdf ac interview questions jntu free download. The pulse amplitude modulation is the simplest form of the pulse modulation. Frequency modulation software free download frequency. The frequency of the modulation signal determines the rate of the frequency change from the center frequency. Types of modulation 6 flynnkatz 7810 analog modulation amplitude modulation, am frequency modulation, fm double and single sideband, dsb and ssb digital modulation phase shift keying. Trelliscoded pulse amplitude modulation tcpam is the modulation format that is used in hdsl2 and g.
To study amplitude demodulation by linear diode detector 3. Modulation is defined as the process by which some characteristics of a carrier signal is varied in accordance with a modulating signal. Adaptation of the information signal to the transmission channel. Pulse amplitude modulation pam the actual amplitude of the pulse represents the number being transmitted. Generation of pam signal using the integrated circuit. The transmitter side consists of a dtsmodulation circuit. Pulse amplitude modulation pam is an analog modulating scheme in which the amplitude of the pulse carrier varies proportional to the instantaneous amplitude of the message signal. Analog communicationpulse width modulation and demodulation is proposed to user friendly to process the experiments and the trainer had all internal features like message signal, carrier signal, power supply etc. The pulse may take any real voltage value that is proportional to the value of the original waveform. Demonstrate understanding of frequency modulation and demodulation technique. Vectors and modulation cse 466 interfacing 3 spose m and n are orthogonal unit vectors.
Quadrature amplitude modulation is widely used for carrying many digital signals, everything from wifi to mobile phone communications and very much more. Pulse position modulation ppm is an analog modulation scheme in which, the amplitude and the width of the pulses are kept constant, while the position of each pulse, with reference to the position of a reference pulse varies according to the instantaneous sampled value of the message signal. To perform the amplitude modulation and demodulation using am kit. The fig1 shows the generation of pam signal from the sampler which has two inputs i. Effects of amplitude modulation on vibrotactile flow displays on piezoactuated thin touch screen. The transmitter circuit produces the am signal which is. Amplitude modulation, modulators, and demodulators october 4, 2006 double sideband amplitude modulation am figure 1 sinusoidal signal with a dc component in double sideband modulation the usual am a dc component is added to the signal voltage before the signal is multiplied by a carrier. There are three audio sources, all of which may be used as either the modulator signal, or the carrier signal and in some cases, both simultaneously. Amplitude modulation of a sinusoidal carrier is widely used in radio and line communications systems. Pulse amplitude modulation is a technique in which the amplitude of each pulse is controlled by the instantaneous amplitude of the modulation signal. The original waveform amplitude is quantized with a resulting loss of information.408 1292 31 142 1563 541 1145 791 1481 719 516 44 1570 1353 1489 1172 1083 3 912 791 1513 1325 252 1070 236 635 670 438 1277 11 344 1452 310 1278 1224 1526 774 819 323 1081 211 988 789 893 18 835 814