It shows nonmendelian inheritance, with male sterility inherited maternally. Mechanisms of genic male sterility iowa state university. Genetics and breeding system for cytoplasmic and genetic male. Either male sterility is controlled by genes of the nucleus. Male sterility has meanwhile been identified in over 150 plant species. Absence, atrophy, mis or mal formation of male organs in a normal bisexual plant. Pdf male sterility and fertility restoration in crops. In plants, male sterility can be caused either by mitochondrial genes with coupled.
However, male sterility governed by recessive genes is used in practical plant breeding. Chemically induced male sterility, a new tool in plant. Crop science abstract mechanisms of genic male sterility. History of plant breeding the most rudimentary forms of plant breeding likely originated during the transition of. Today, two natural sources of male sterility present in the genetic diversity are mainly used by breeders in their breeding programs. Traditional and modern plant breeding methods with. Unesco eolss sample chapters soils, plant growth and crop production vol.
An abnormality at any point in this process may lead to sterility. Plants of red clover, white clover, beets, turnips and perennial ryegrass were sprayed with solutions of na 2. Cms systems represent a valuable tool in the production of hybrid seed in selfpollinating crop species, including maize, rice, cotton, and a number of. It is contented that the rarely occuring types of plasmatically inherited ms offer good possibilities of utilization in the case of cross fertilized plants. Male sterility and its importance in breeding heterosis.
The 2 main fields of application, the production of hybrid seed and interspecific and intraspecific hybridization and backcrossing for crop improvement, are discussed. Crop science abstract mechanisms of genic male sterility view my binders this article in cs. Plant breeding can be defined as an art, a science, and technology of improving the genetic make up of plants in relation to their economic use for the man kind. Plabstat may be read as plant breeding statistical program or alternatively as. Principles of plant genetics and breeding kindle edition by george acquaah. We have created nuclear male sterility through genetic engineering of anther specific gene, bcp1. Cytoplasmic male sterility and mitochondrial metabolism in.
Models for the evolution of gynodioecy that consider nuclear inheritance of male sterility find that females can only spread in populations if they are more. Male sterility in pearl millet for heterosis breeding authorstream presentation. Plant breeding, or crop genetic improvement, is the production of new, improved crop varieties for use by farmers. Male sterility in plants genetics biology discussion. In plants, male sterility can be caused either by mitochondrial genes with coupled nuclear genes or by nuclear genes alone. Importance of plant breeding, cytological principles of plant breeding, heterosis, inbreeding and its consequences or applications, selfincompatibility in plants, cytoplasmic male sterility, breeding. The failure of pollen formation results in male sterile plants. Brassicaceae crops display strong hybrid vigor, and have long been subject to f 1 hybrid breeding.
Male sterility and somatic hybridization in plant breeding. Applications of genie male sterility in plant breeding rao 1990. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading principles of plant genetics and breeding. Kidwell encyclopedia of life support systems eolss 2.
Gms occurs widely in plant and in given plant species several different ms gene act monogenically to produced male sterility. Genetically engineered male sterility may be applied to any crop, including those crops where cms systems are not available or are unreliable. Principles of plant genetics and breeding 2, george. Malesterile plants make the breeders job easier by eliminating the risk of unwanted crosspollination and gene flow. This feature has great agronomic value for the production of hybrid seeds and has been widely used in crops, such as corn, rice. Plant breeding download book free computer books download. Hybrid breeding food and agriculture organization of the united. The section of plant breeding and genetics in the college of agriculture and life sciences is a center of excellence for classical plant breeding, as well as molecular approaches to crop improvement and creation of superior agricultural, horticultural, and ornamental varieties. The new variety may have higher yield, improved grain quality, increased disease resistance, or be less prone to lodging. Utilization of male sterility male sterility has important application in the development of hybrids in plant breeding. Essentials of plant breeding was written as a textbook for a.
The sterility of this line is conditioned by the interaction of two genes, i. Cytoplasmic male sterility, as the name indicates, is under extranuclear genetic control under control of the mitochondrial or plastid genomes. Four to five weeks after treatment with definite dosages a moderate to very high degree of male sterility occurred in the first three crops, while no reduction of growth or flowering could be established. Pdf applications of genie male sterility in plant breeding. We have also shown that antisense rna inactivation of this unique gene of plant origin leads to nuclear male sterility in arabidopsis and brassica vegetable cauliflower. It occurs spontaneously in natural populations and may be caused by genes encoded in the nuclear genic male sterility. Genotypic a genetic male sterility gms also called as nuclear male sterility.
This area thus has a tremendous potential in plant breeding. The present study was undertaken to identify dna markers for the ms locus in a bc 1 population developed from a cross between a. Breeding field crops john milton poehlman, david allen sleper. In this case, cytoplasm is not involved in bringing the sterility. Find plant breeding stock images in hd and millions of other royalty free stock photos, illustrations and vectors in the shutterstock collection. Tissue culture can be used to obtain virusfree material for further use. Pdf male sterility in vegetable crops researchgate. Male sterility in pearl millet for heterosis breeding. Cms and gms facilitate hybrid seed production for many crops and thus allow breeders to harness yield gains associated with hybrid vigor heterosis. In tetraploid cotton, male sterility is governed by both recessive and dominant genes.
Identification of closely linked genes for anthocyanin plant colour and male sterility in sunflower and the breeding of. Male sterility and fertility restoration in crops annual. Classification of sterility can be divided into heritable and nonheritable sterility. Organizational aspects of a plant breeding programme. In cotton, gms has been reported in upland, egyptian and arboreum cottons. Publication date 1942 topics technology, agriculture and related sciences and techniques. Failure to develop normal microsporogenous tissue, anomalies in microsporogenesis yielding imperfect inviable deformed or aborted pollen. Cms is a maternally inherited trait encoded in the mitochondrial genome. The basic contribution of gms is that it provides a means of genetic emasculation which can be applied for the massive production of hybrids. Male sterility in three crop lupinus species, plant. Revolutionary developments in plant genetics and genomics and. Male sterility in plants going to seed with dan brisebois. The antisense expression of nin88 leads to male sterility in the transgenic plants that are normal in all aspects of plant growth and development except for failure to produce functional pollen. Read male sterility in three crop lupinus species, plant breeding on deepdyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at.
Cytoplasmic male sterility cms is a common feature encountered in plant species. Pollen sterility in which male sterile individuals differ from normal only in the absence or extreme scarcity of functional pollen grains the most common and the only one that has played a major role in plant breeding structural or staminal male sterility in which male flowers or. Genetic engineering of male sterility for hybrid seed. It is the result of a genomic conflict between the mitochondrial and the nuclear genomes. Male sterility is needed for the production of f1 hybrid seed. Male sterility in tomato lycopersicon esculentum mill. Cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration. Like any other morphological traits, particularly mono and oligogenic, this type of male sterility occurs in plant due to mutation of the fertility locus, situated on chromosomes within the nucleus. Finally, approaches to genetically engineering male sterility in higher plants are discussed. Plant breeding can be accomplished through many different techniques ranging from simply selecting plants with desirable characteristics for propagation, to more complex molecular techniques.
Gms can be used for the development of commercial hybrids in both seed propagated and vegetatively propagated crop plants. Methods of plant breeding by hayes, herbert kendall. If green goliath is either cytoplasmic male sterile or genetic cytoplasmic male sterile, it might be best for erik to find some other broccoli variety to. The initial discovery of cytoplasmic male sterile cms threeline system made it possible to produce. Welcome to the plant breeding and genetics section in the school of integrative plant science. The inability of a plant with functional pollen to set seeds when self pollinated is called self incompatibility. Download a pdf of statistical genetics and plant breeding by the national research council for free. Genome engineering, plant breeding, crisprcas, genetic diversity. Thus the numerical values as well as the parameters in statements must be separated by at least one blank. The aim of this report is to present an overview of traditional plant breeding. The basic contribution of gms is that it provides a.
Effects of male sterility on reproductive traits in. However, some cropsincluding bananas, apples, cassava, and sugar cane reproduce vegetatively, especially those that are fully sterile without seeds. Pdf modern plant breeding is considered a discipline originating from the science of genetics. Traditional and modern plant breeding methods with examples in rice oryza sativa l. Plant breeding david luckett and gerald halloran what is. Male sterile plants were also found in two selfpollenated populations derived from. Thus, the perturbation of the carbohydrate supply provides a subtle although highly efficient biotechnological method to engineer male sterility in. Applications of genic male sterility in plant breeding. Applications of genie male sterility in plant breeding. Plant breeding and genetics encyclopedia of life support.
The basic contribution of gms is that it provides a means of genetic emasculation which can be. Definition, aim, objectives and scope of plant breeding definition. Plant breeding is a handy and reliable software that assists you in organizing and managing various. International journal of plant breeding 2007 global science books male sterility in tomato lycopersicon esculentum mill. Plant breeding is an art and science, which tells us ways and means to change the genetic architecture of plants so as to attain a particular objective. Plant male sterility refers to the failure in the production of fertile pollen. Even though sterility can be produced by chemicals, ionizing radiation, genetic engineering, etc. The merits and demerits of gms are presented below. Thousands of new, highquality pictures added every day.
The book demonstrates that ppb is in essence no different from conventional plant breeding, being based on the very same principles of mendelian, quantitative and population genetics, and therefore has complemented the. This is great if you have plant breeding facilities and genetic material to work with but most of us farm scale breeders probably dont have these resources. Everything you need to know about selfincompatibility and male sterility in plants. Cytoplasmic male sterility is an important area of plant breeding and crop research. Statistical genetics and plant breeding the national. The importance of male sterility as a means of breeding heterosis varieties is indicated and the advantages attached to the use of ms, and the problems arising from it, are discussed. Cms is caused by mitochondrial encoded factors which can be counteracted by nuclear encoded factors restoring male fertility. Rs1046ab is a genic male sterile twotype line in rapeseed that has great potential for hybrid seed production. All three types of male sterility are used in crop improvement programmes. Cytoplasmic male sterility cms, a condition under which a plant is unable to produce functional pollen, is widespread among higher plants.
Male sterility and its typesplant breeding for any. The ability to control the fertility of hybrid progeny has many advantages to farmers and breeders. Crisprcas genome editing and precision plant breeding in agriculture. Because the most reliable system of f 1 seed production is based on cytoplasmic male sterility cms, various types of cms have been developed and adopted in practice to breed brassicaceae oil seed and vegetable crops. Plant breeding is the art and science of changing the traits of plants in order to produce desired characteristics.7 1059 13 759 1265 987 1520 205 1221 1260 338 911 60 632 505 94 777 1588 560 319 1407 1443 25 1509 1240 1006 490 1199 686 930 1334 2 626 827 1176 130 400 118 350 1232 840